English Language Proficiency Test

CAE - Certificate in Advanced English

An advanced-level exam evaluating high proficiency in English, commonly used for academic and professional purposes.

CPE - Certificate of Proficiency in English

An exam assessing advanced English language skills, typically required for academic and professional purposes.

FCE - First Certificate in English

An intermediate-level exam assessing English language ability, often used for employment and study purposes.


KET - Key English Test

An elementary-level exam testing fundamental English language skills.

PET - Preliminary English Test

A beginner to intermediate-level exam assessing basic English language skills.

IELTS - International English Language Testing System

A widely accepted test for assessing English language proficiency for study, work, and migration in English-speaking countries.

TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language

A standardised test measuring the English language proficiency of non-native speakers seeking admission to English-speaking universities.

TOEIC - Test of English for International Communication 

TOEIC is a standardised test developed and administered by ETS (Educational Testing Service) and is specifically designed to assess an individual’s English language proficiency in a workplace or business context.

The TOEIC test measures the ability to use English in everyday work-related situations and focuses on language skills relevant to the workplace, such as reading comprehension, listening comprehension, speaking, and writing.

Scores from the TOEIC test are commonly used by employers and companies.

Specialised English Language Learning

CALL - Computer-Assisted Language Learning

CALL refers to the use of technology, particularly computers and digital resources, to enhance the teaching and learning of a language, in this case, English. CALL encompasses a wide range of tools and methods that integrate technology into language education.

Examples of CALL include:

  • Language Learning Software

Interactive programs designed to teach vocabulary, grammar, listening, and speaking skills.

  • Online Courses and Platforms

Web-based platforms or apps offering structured language lessons, exercises, and assessments.

  • Educational Websites and Resources

Websites providing language learning materials such as videos, audio clips, quizzes, and interactive exercises.

  • Language Learning Apps

Mobile applications that offer language practice, vocabulary building, and grammar exercises.

  • Virtual Learning Environments

Online platforms where teachers and students interact in a digital classroom setting.

CALL aims to supplement traditional teaching methods by providing learners with additional resources, interactive activities, and opportunities for practice outside the classroom. It can cater to different learning styles, offer immediate feedback, and adapt to individual learner needs, making language learning more accessible, engaging, and effective.

EAP - English for Academic Purposes

EAP refers to a specialised form of English language instruction tailored to prepare non-native English speakers for academic study in English-speaking educational settings, particularly at colleges or universities.

EAP courses focus on developing the language skills needed for success in an academic environment. They typically cover areas such as academic writing, reading comprehension of scholarly texts, listening to lectures, participating in discussions, and presenting academic material. These courses aim to equip students with the language proficiency and academic skills necessary to engage effectively in academic contexts, meet the language requirements of their courses, and succeed in their studies conducted in English

ESP - English for Specific Purposes

ESP is an approach to teaching English that focuses on meeting specific needs and goals of learners in particular fields or disciplines. Unlike general English language teaching, which covers a broad range of language skills and topics, ESP tailors language instruction to the specialised language requirements of learners based on their professional or academic contexts.

ESP programs are designed to teach English that is directly relevant to the learners’ field of study or work. For instance, there might be ESP courses for business English, medical English, legal English, or English for engineering. These courses emphasise vocabulary, terminology, and communication skills specific to the chosen field, helping learners develop the language proficiency necessary to operate effectively within their professional or academic domains.

ESP instructors often collaborate closely with professionals from the specific field to ensure that the language content taught aligns with the real-world language demands of that particular industry or discipline. This approach aims to equip learners with the language skills they need to succeed in their specialised area of interest or profession.

TEYL - Teaching English to Young Learners

Is a specialised area within the field of English language teaching that focuses on methods, techniques, and strategies for teaching English to children and young learners.

TEYL programs or courses are designed to prepare educators to effectively teach English to children whose first language is not English. These programs cover topics such as child development, age-appropriate teaching methodologies, classroom management, creating engaging activities, and fostering a positive learning environment for young learners.

The aim of TEYL is to equip teachers with the skills and knowledge to engage and motivate young students in learning English, using age-appropriate materials, games, songs, and activities that suit the cognitive and developmental needs of children. TEYL instructors often learn how to adapt language teaching to different learning styles and abilities, making the learning process enjoyable and effective for young language learners.

English Teacher Qualification

CELTA - Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages  

Is a widely recognised certificate for individuals who want to teach English as a second or foreign language. The CELTA course is offered by Cambridge Assessment English and is designed for those with little or no previous English language teaching experience.

CELTA programs typically involve intensive training, often lasting around four to five weeks, where candidates learn teaching methodologies, classroom management skills, language analysis, and lesson planning. It includes both theoretical study and practical teaching experience, often with real ESL or EFL students.

Cert IV in TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages

A Certificate IV in TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) is a certification program that focuses on training individuals to teach English as a second or foreign language to non-native speakers. This certificate is a vocational qualification that provides foundational knowledge and practical skills necessary for teaching English in various contexts.

The program typically covers topics such as language teaching methodologies, lesson planning, language assessment, classroom management, and understanding the needs of English language learners. It aims to equip individuals with the skills and knowledge required to effectively teach English to non-native speakers in different settings, such as language schools, community programs, or online teaching platforms.

The Certificate IV in TESOL is often considered an entry-level qualification for those seeking to start a career in teaching English as a second language. It may serve as a starting point for individuals who want to further their studies or gain practical experience before pursuing more advanced qualifications in TESOL or related fields.


CTEYL - Certificate in Teaching English to Young Learners

It is a specialised certification program aimed at educators who wish to specialise in teaching English to children and young learners.

The CTEYL program focuses on providing teachers with the necessary knowledge, skills, and strategies to effectively teach English to children whose first language is not English. It covers various aspects of language teaching specifically tailored to the needs, learning styles, and developmental stages of young learners.

In a CTEYL program, educators learn about age-appropriate teaching methodologies, classroom management techniques, creating engaging lesson plans, selecting suitable materials and resources, and designing activities that cater to the cognitive and linguistic needs of young learners. The program often includes practical teaching experience, observations, and assessments to ensure participants are equipped to teach English to children in an engaging and effective manner.

DELTA - Diploma in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages

The DELTA course is designed for teachers who already have substantial experience in teaching English as a second or foreign language, often with a minimum requirement of at least two years of teaching experience.

The DELTA program explores into more advanced concepts in language teaching, including in-depth exploration of teaching theories, curriculum development, assessment techniques, and research in the field of English language teaching. It involves rigorous coursework, practical teaching experience, and assessments.

Diploma in TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages)

A Diploma in TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) is an advanced level qualification for individuals who want to enhance their teaching skills and deepen their understanding of teaching English as a second or foreign language.

This diploma program typically goes beyond the basics and delves deeper into various aspects of language teaching, such as language acquisition theories, advanced teaching methodologies, curriculum development, language assessment, and applied linguistics. It often involves practical teaching experience and may require candidates to complete supervised teaching practicums.

A Diploma in TESOL is designed for individuals who already have some experience in teaching English to non-native speakers and want to advance their careers in the field. It provides a more comprehensive and in-depth understanding of language teaching principles and practices, enabling graduates to take on more advanced teaching roles, curriculum development positions, or teacher training responsibilities in the field of TESOL.

Trinity TESOL

Is offered by Trinity College London, it is an internationally recognised certification that aims to prepare individuals for teaching English as a second or foreign language.

The program focuses on practical teaching skills, methodologies, and language awareness, providing candidates with the necessary tools and knowledge to effectively teach English to non-native speakers. It often includes observed teaching practice, feedback sessions, and assessments to ensure candidates develop strong teaching skills and competencies.

Teaching and Learning Context

EAL - English as an Additional Language

EAL refers to teaching for individuals who speak a language other than English at home or as their primary language and are in the process of learning English in addition to their native or first language.

EAL programs are designed to assist non-native English speakers in acquiring proficiency in English, enabling them to communicate effectively in various contexts such as education, work, and social interactions. These programs cater to learners at different proficiency levels, from beginners to advanced speakers, and focus on developing their language skills in reading, writing, speaking, and listening.

EAL support can take various forms, including specialised classes, language support within mainstream education, language assessment and guidance, and resources tailored to the linguistic and cultural backgrounds of the learners. The goal of EAL is to facilitate the integration of non-native English speakers into an English-speaking environment while preserving and valuing their linguistic diversity.


ELT - English Language Teaching

ELT refers to the practice, methodology, and profession of teaching the English language to non-native speakers. ELT encompasses a wide range of approaches, methods, and techniques used by teachers to help learners acquire proficiency in English. It involves teaching various language skills such as speaking, listening, reading, writing, and comprehension.

ELT professionals develop and implement instructional strategies and materials to facilitate language learning, taking into account the diverse needs, backgrounds, and goals of learners. ELT can occur in various settings, including classrooms, language institutes, online platforms, or as part of specific programs such as ESL (English as a Second Language) or EFL (English as a Foreign Language) programs. The goal of ELT is to enable learners to effectively communicate and interact in English for academic, professional, or social purposes.

EFL - English as a Foreign Language

EFL – English as a Foreign Language

EFL refers to the teaching and learning of the English language in a country where English is not the primary or official language. In EFL contexts, English is studied as a subject or skill for various purposes, such as for academic, professional, or personal enrichment.

Unlike ESL (English as a Second Language), which is taught in countries where English is the primary language, EFL is taught in regions where English is not widely spoken in daily life. Students learning English as a foreign language may not have regular exposure to native English speakers outside of their classroom environment.

EFL instruction typically covers language skills such as reading, writing, speaking, and listening, aiming to provide learners with the ability to understand and communicate effectively in English, even though it may not be commonly used in their immediate surroundings. EFL programs often exist in schools, language institutes, or as part of private tutoring sessions to cater to individuals’ language learning needs.

ESOL stands for English for Speakers of Other Languages

Refers to programs and courses designed to teach English to individuals who speak a different language as their primary or first language. ESOL programs aim to help non-native English speakers improve their English language proficiency for various purposes, including communication, education, work, and integration into English-speaking communities.

ESL - English as a Second Language

ESL refers to the teaching and learning of the English language by individuals who reside in a country where English is the primary or dominant language, but it is not their first language.

ESL programs are designed to support individuals, often immigrants or newcomers, in developing their English language skills for various purposes, including social interaction, work, education, and daily life in an English-speaking environment. These programs focus on teaching reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills to help individuals communicate effectively in English.

ESL instruction can take place in formal classroom settings, community centres, language institutes, or through private tutoring. The goal is to help non-native English speakers become proficient in the language to integrate successfully into the social and professional fabric of the English-speaking society they are part of.

TEAL - Teaching English as an Additional Language

Is a term similar in meaning to ESL (English as a Second Language) or EAL (English as an Additional Language), which refers to providing language instruction to individuals whose first language is not English.

TEAL programs are designed to support individuals who speak another language at home or as their primary language and are learning English as an additional means of communication. These programs aim to develop English language skills, including reading, writing, speaking, and listening, to help learners effectively communicate and integrate into an English-speaking environment.

TEAL caters to learners at various proficiency levels and often includes a variety of teaching methods, materials, and activities tailored to the needs and backgrounds of the learners. The goal is to facilitate language acquisition and proficiency in English, enabling individuals to participate fully in educational, social, and professional settings where English is used.


TESOL - Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages

Is a broader term that encompasses teaching English in various contexts, such as teaching immigrants in English-speaking countries (ESL – English as a Second Language) or teaching English abroad in countries where English is not the primary language (EFL – English as a Foreign Language).

TEFL - Teaching English as a Foreign Language

This term specifically refers to teaching English in countries where English is not the primary language. TEFL teachers usually work with students who are learning English for reasons like travel, business, or personal development.

Language Teaching Methodology

CLT - Communicative Language Teaching

CLT is an approach to language teaching that prioritises communication and meaningful interaction as the core components of language learning. It emerged in the 1970s and became a prominent methodology in language education.

Core Principles of CLT

Communication as the Goal

CLT emphasises the ability to communicate effectively in real-life situations rather than just focusing on grammar rules and vocabulary in isolation.

Authentic Language Use

 Learners are  encouraged to use the  language in meaningful and authentic contexts, mimicking real-life situations such as    discussions, role-plays, problem-solving tasks, etc.

Meaningful Interaction

Students engage in activities that require negotiation of meaning and interaction with others. This encourages learners to use the language creatively and flexibly.

Contextualised Learning

Language is taught and learned in contexts that are relevant and meaningful to the students’ lives or interests.

Student-Centred Approach

CLT often involves activities where students take an active role in their learning, encouraging autonomy and participation.

Techniques and Activities in CLT

Pair and Group Work

Activities that involve interaction among students, such as discussions, debates, role-plays, and collaborative projects.

Authentic Materials

Using real-world materials like newspapers, videos, authentic texts, etc., to expose learners to natural language use.

Task-Based Learning

Providing learners with tasks that require them to use the language to accomplish a specific goal, fostering communication and problem-solving skills.

Focus on Fluency

Prioritising the ability to communicate meaningfully over accuracy, especially in the early stages of language learning.

Criticisms and Challenges

Lack of Explicit Grammar Instruction

Some argue that CLT might not adequately address the need for explicit grammar instruction, especially for learners who prefer structured learning.

Assessment Challenges

Assessing communicative competence can be challenging, as traditional testing methods may not effectively measure communicative ability.

Teacher Training

Implementing CLT effectively often requires teachers to have a strong understanding of the approach and the ability to create engaging communicative activities.

Despite challenges, CLT remains influential in language teaching due to its focus on practical language use and its alignment with the goal of enabling learners to communicate effectively in real-life situations.

PPP - Presentation, Practice, Production

PPP is a language teaching methodology that follows a structured sequence to introduce, reinforce, and solidify new language concepts or skills. It’s commonly used in language classrooms to introduce grammar points, vocabulary, or language functions. Here’s a breakdown of each stage:


In this initial stage, the teacher introduces new language elements to the students. It could involve explaining grammar rules, demonstrating language use, providing examples, or using visual aids like charts, pictures, or videos.

The aim is to make the new language concept understandable and accessible to the learners.


After the presentation, students engage in guided activities that allow them to practice the newly introduced language in a controlled setting. These activities could involve exercises, drills, or structured tasks designed to reinforce the language concept.

The practice stage aims to help students understand the new language concept and become comfortable using it correctly.


This stage focuses on giving students the opportunity to apply the language they’ve learned in a more open, creative, or realistic context. Students are encouraged to use the language independently to express themselves.

Activities in this stage often involve role-plays, discussions, debates, or tasks where students use the language freely and produce their own sentences or dialogues.

 Advantages of PPP

Structured Approach

It provides a clear sequence of steps, making it easy for both teachers and students to understand the progression of learning.

Clear Introduction of New Concepts

The presentation stage ensures that learners have a foundational understanding of the new language before moving on to practice and production.

Gradual Progression

It allows learners to start with controlled practice and then move towards more open and creative use of language, building confidence along the way.


Focus on Teacher-Centred Learning

Some critics argue that PPP can lead to a more teacher-centred classroom, limiting student engagement and autonomy.

Potential Lack of Authenticity

The controlled practice stage might not always reflect real-world language use, and the gap between practice and real-life application could be significant.

Varied Learning Paces

Students might have different learning speeds, and PPP might not cater equally well to all learning styles and needs.

While PPP has been a widely used methodology in language teaching, many educators nowadays combine elements of PPP with other approaches to create a more balanced and effective learning environment for students.

ESA - Engage, Study, Activate

ESA is a lesson structure commonly used in language teaching. It provides a framework for organising and delivering lessons, particularly within the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach or in the context of Dogme teaching.

Components of ESA


The lesson starts with an engaging activity that grabs the students’ attention and introduces the topic or language point to be studied. This phase aims to motivate and stimulate interest in the lesson.

Activities in this stage could include games, discussions, a short video clip, or any interactive activity related to the upcoming lesson.


After engaging the students, the lesson moves into the study phase, where the teacher presents the language point or topic in more detail. This phase often involves explanation, instruction, and practice.

Teachers might introduce new vocabulary, grammar rules, or language functions in this stage. They might use examples, exercises, and activities to help students understand and internalise the new language elements.


The final phase, activation, encourages students to use the newly learned language in meaningful, authentic contexts. This phase allows students to practice and apply what they have learned in freer, less controlled activities.

Activities in the activation stage could include role-plays, debates, problem-solving tasks, or any task that requires students to use the language creatively and communicate effectively.

Advantages of ESA


It starts with an engaging activity, capturing students’ interest and motivation from the beginning of the lesson.

Structured Approach

ESA provides a clear structure for lesson planning, ensuring a logical flow from introduction to practice and application.

Gradual Learning Progression

It allows for gradual learning, beginning with introduction and instruction and culminating in students applying the learned concepts in a more open and natural way.


Time Constraints

Some lessons might not have sufficient time to cover all three stages in-depth, leading to rushed activities or incomplete coverage.

Teacher-Centred Nature

Depending on implementation, ESA might still lean towards a teacher-centred approach, limiting students’ autonomy and engagement in certain cases.

ESA provides a useful framework for teachers to structure their lessons in a way that engages students, introduces new language concepts, and provides opportunities for students to actively use and practice the language in a variety of contexts.

TBL - Task-Based Learning

TBL is an approach to language teaching that revolves around the completion of meaningful tasks as the central focus of the learning process. It emphasises the practical application of language skills to accomplish specific objectives or tasks rather than solely focusing on linguistic elements like grammar or vocabulary in isolation.

Core Principles of TBL

Task-Centred Approach

TBL places tasks at the core of the learning process. These tasks are real-world activities that require students to use language to achieve a goal or solve a problem.

Communication and Problem-Solving

The emphasis is on communication, interaction, and problem-solving. Students work collaboratively or individually to complete tasks that involve using the target language in a meaningful context.

Language as a Tool

Language is seen as a tool for communication rather than an end in itself. Learners acquire language through using it to perform tasks and solve real problems.


TBL aims to replicate authentic, real-world situations in which the language might be used. Tasks are designed to simulate situations learners might encounter outside the classroom.

Components and Implementation

Task Design

Teachers design tasks that require the use of language in authentic contexts. These tasks can vary widely and may include role-plays, problem-solving activities, debates, presentations, etc.


Pre-Task, Task, and Post-Task Phases


     Pre-task    Introduction of the task, discussion, preparation, and possibly language input if necessary.

     Task       Students perform the task, using the language to achieve the task’s goal.

     Post-task    Review and reflection on language used during the task, feedback, and language analysis if required.

           Language Focus      Language learning occurs incidentally during task performance. However, if specific language issues arise during or after the task, teachers can address them to clarify or teach relevant language points.

Advantages of TBL

Real-world Relevance

Tasks are meaningful and simulate real-life language use, enhancing motivation and relevance for learners.

Communication Skills

It focuses on developing communication and problem-solving skills rather than just linguistic accuracy.

Student Engagement

TBL often promotes higher engagement as students are motivated by the practical nature of the tasks.



Designing and implementing tasks may take more time compared to traditional methods.

Difficulty in Assessment

Assessing language proficiency through tasks might be challenging due to the diverse nature of tasks and student performance.



CLIL - Content and Language Integrated Learning

CLIL is an educational approach that involves teaching a subject content (such as science, history, or mathematics) in a language that is not the students’ native language. The primary goal of CLIL is to develop both subject knowledge and language proficiency simultaneously.

Core Principles of CLIL

Integration of Content and Language

CLIL aims to seamlessly integrate language learning with the learning of subject content. Students acquire language skills while studying a specific subject.

Authentic Learning Contexts

CLIL promotes the use of authentic materials and tasks related to the subject being taught, allowing students to learn both content and language in a meaningful context.

Language Development Through Content

Students learn the language by engaging with subject-specific content. For example, they might learn scientific terms in a biology class conducted in a foreign language.

Active Learning and Collaboration

CLIL often involves interactive activities, collaborative projects, and discussions, fostering active participation and communication among students.

Implementation of CLIL

Language of Instruction

CLIL programs can be conducted in a second or foreign language. For instance, teaching biology in a language that is not the students’ native language.

Adapted Instructional Materials

Teachers create or adapt instructional materials that suit the language proficiency level of the students while maintaining the rigor of the subject content.

Language Support

Teachers might provide language support strategies, such as scaffolding, clarification techniques, or vocabulary assistance, to help students comprehend the subject matter.

Advantages of CLIL

Dual Learning Objectives

Students acquire subject knowledge and language skills simultaneously.

Real-Life Application

Learning subject content in a language other than the native language mirrors real-world situations where language skills are used in specific contexts.

Enhanced Motivation

CLIL can increase students’ motivation as they engage with interesting subject matter in a different language.


Language Proficiency

Students might struggle with the language, impacting their comprehension of subject content.

Teacher Training

CLIL requires teachers who are proficient in both the subject and the language of instruction, which might require specialised training.


Assessing both language proficiency and subject knowledge in a CLIL context can be challenging.

CLIL has gained popularity as it offers a way to promote language learning while providing meaningful content education, preparing students for a globalised world where proficiency in multiple languages is increasingly valuable.